Learn about the car’s electrical system

The car’s electrical system only accounts for 20% but ensures the vehicle’s operation and is capable of controlling the remaining 80% of parts. The electrical system on a car consists of 5 main parts: battery, starter, generator, wires, relays and fuses. Let’s learn more about this system with CarOn!

What is an electrical system?

Considered the “nervous system” of the car, the car’s electrical system only accounts for 20% but ensures the vehicle’s operation and is capable of controlling the remaining 80% of the parts.

Electrical and electronic systems interfere with nearly all operations of a car. From simple systems such as starting, power supply, ignition to new advanced systems developed every day such as braking systems, driving systems

Battery – The life source of the entire car’s electrical system

The battery helps store power when the vehicle is running and provides energy back to help the vehicle start and maintain the operation of other load devices (electricity consuming devices) when the generator is on. The vehicle is not working, or has not reached the specified engine rpm.

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They also need to provide power in case the load uses current that exceeds the generator’s rating. Most current vehicles are equipped with lead batteries and are divided into two main types: dry batteries and liquid batteries.

  • For water batteries After a long time of use, the acid will evaporate, so we need to maintain them by adding more acid.
  • For dry batteries (airtight) then we do not need to do this work.

The starter is responsible for starting the vehicle

People also call the starter by another name, the starter. The function of the starter is to rotate the engine crankshaft through the gear ring to start the engine.

As a DC electric motor, when turning the key, the starter receives battery current through the ignition switch. The crankshaft must rotate to a minimum speed for the engine to self-start, which helps the engine start.

Depending on the engine structure and operating condition, the minimum rotation speed to start the engine will be different. Normally, gasoline engines have a speed of 40 – 60 rpm and diesel engines have a speed of about 80 – 100 rpm.

There are 3 main types of starters: reduction starters, coaxial starters and planetary gear starters.

  • Reducer type.
  • Coaxial type.
  • Planetary gear type.

The generator provides electricity when the vehicle is running

The generator has the function of generating electricity for batteries and other electricity consuming devices. When the engine is running, the entire car’s electrical system will be supplied by the generator.

The generator operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction, driven through a “V” shaped belt from the engine crankshaft to rotate the electromagnet, thereby creating a magnetic field that affects the internal winding. The stator generates electricity.

On the generator body, a small microcircuit regulator is attached. In addition to the pressure regulator function, it also reports some damage by controlling the charging indicator light. A generator of today’s car electrical system is made up of 3 main parts:

  • Power generation department
  • Rectifier part
  • Voltage regulator.

Wiring of the car’s electrical system

Electrical wires are likened to the “nerves” of the entire car, helping to connect the entire electrical system of the car, transmitting electricity from different electrical devices on the car’s electrical system.

For each different vehicle model, each wire will have a different color to easily distinguish the wires of each system and make it more convenient to look up repair documents.

In addition to distinguishing by color, we can also distinguish electric wires by “wiring”. For example, with CAN bus network wires, the wires will be twisted together to avoid confusion with other wires.

Relays and bridges protect electrical circuits

The function of relays and fuses is to protect the automobile electrical system. As a device that plays the role of opening and closing electrical control circuits, relays help protect and control the operation of dynamic electrical circuits. Besides, fuses help protect when system lines are overcurrent. Relays and fuses are often arranged in a cluster on the vehicle and are called a fuse box.

Fuses for electrical circuits in cars

Each car will usually have 2 main fuse boxes. The first is the engine fuse box located outside the engine compartment, under the hood, near the vehicle’s main battery. The remaining fuse box is located under the car’s dashboard and is called the body electrical fuse box (body box).

As for relays, this device is used to turn on and off the control circuit, protect and control the operation of the dynamic circuit.

As for the fuse, it functions to protect the system when the current is overloaded.

Regarding car fuses, on each car, there will usually be 2 main fuse boxes:

  • Engine fuse box: usually located outside the engine compartment, under the hood and close to the main battery location on the vehicle.
  • Vehicle body electrical fuse box (body box): usually located right under the vehicle dashboard.

The electrical system is a very important part of a car. Therefore, this is the part that needs the most attention and maintenance. If any unusual phenomenon occurs, immediately bring your beloved car to CarOn – a top reputable garage with good service quality, a skilled technical team and attractive after-sales service.

In addition, CarOn also developed a super product called a Smart Car Display that supports the integration of many devices, capable of displaying warnings of unusual incidents on the car screen, very convenient and useful when use

Contact immediately via hotline 0961.247.360 or via website https://caronpro.vn/ for direct consultation.

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