ABS braking system: structure, history and operating principles

The ABS anti-lock braking system is a popular active safety system on most cars today. However, some drivers still do not clearly understand what this system is, how it works and whether it is really necessary or not. Join CarOn to answer the above questions through the following article

What is ABS braking system?

CarOn abs system

ABS is considered a safety device that can significantly reduce the number and severity of traffic accidents. Through tests, ABS has shown to be effective and necessary for vehicles at the present time.

ABS (also known as Anti-Locking Brake System) – can be simply understood as anti-lock braking system, this is an active safety feature equipped on cars today to minimize losses and protect customers. ensure safety for users.

If you pay attention, vehicles equipped with an ABS anti-lock braking system will have a signal light on the dashboard. But it should be noted, if the car is equipped with ABS and the signal light does not light up after turning the key on for about 3 seconds, you need to find out the cause and make adjustments.

Structure of the ABS braking system

CarOn abs brake structure

The ABS anti-lock system is composed of 4 parts:

Speed ​​sensor (rotor)

The speed sensor is composed of a permanent magnet, coil and magnetic core, installed on the front and rear wheels or differential of the vehicle. Has the effect of detecting the speed of the wheels to detect the phenomenon of wheel locking and transmitting signals to the Central Electronic Control and Processing Unit (ECU).

Deceleration sensor

The deceleration sensor functions to help the ABS system measure wheel deceleration, thereby adjusting brake fluid pressure appropriately. There are usually two types of deceleration sensors: vertical sensors and horizontal sensors. Structure includes 2 pairs of lights – 01 LED light and 01 Transistor light, slotted disc and signal conversion circuit.

ABS brake actuator

The ABS hydraulic actuator is composed of an electronic valve, pressure tank, electric motor and oil pump. Responsible for providing the most optimal level of oil pressure to the wheel brake cylinders, helping to prevent locking brakes according to orders from the ABS controller.

ABS controller

The ABS controller is the brake system control center, which receives and calculates information about the speed of the wheels transmitted from the ECU. From there, command the hydraulic brake actuator to provide appropriate oil pressure to prevent the brakes from locking.

History of ABS braking system

In the early days, ABS was only available on commercial aircraft. The exact time this system was used was in 1949 and the structure of ABS at that time was still quite bulky and not yet agile. Until 1969, when electronic technology developed, microchips were created, and the ABS braking system was applied on cars.

CarOn abs brake development history

Since the 70s of the 20th century, many car manufacturers have researched and applied ABS to their products. Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota began using ABS on its vehicles in 1971, but it was not until the 1980s that this system was perfected.

In Germany, after Mercedes Benz and Bosch announced the results of their first joint research in August 1978, ABS was officially equipped for the W116 generation Mercedes-Benz S-Class sedan a few months later. In 1981, the ABS anti-lock braking system was available on all commercial vehicles of this car company.

By the 90s, ABS had become indispensable standard equipment when it came to safety features on every Mercedes car.

Today, the ABS anti-lock braking system is a mandatory standard for passenger cars and vehicles operating in slippery areas. In fact, most cars today are equipped with this safety feature.

Operating principle of the ABS braking system

ABS operates on a fairly basic principle. The operating principle of ABS is thanks to the speed sensors on each wheel, sending information to the ABS ECU and from there the ABS ECU will capture the rotational speed on each wheel and immediately detect when the wheel Any vehicle has the phenomenon of “locking up” when the driver suddenly applies the brakes, leading to the phenomenon of sliding off the road surface.

If the vehicle is not equipped with ABS, when the wheel slips, that is, the traction drops below the allowable level of the wheel, which will result in the force transmitted to the wheel from the engine not helping the vehicle move forward. which, on the contrary, causes loss of control.

What is abs? CarOn

When the driver suddenly brakes, the ABS – Anti-Lock Brake System will now press and release the clamp bar on the disc brake about 15 times per second, instead of applying an extremely strong force. for a period of time, the wheel can “die” like on vehicles without ABS.

When the vehicle has ABS, the system’s computer will rely on the parameters of the speed sensors and the driver’s actions to provide the most optimal braking pressure for each wheel, thereby ensuring stability. of the vehicle and still allows the driver to control the vehicle’s trajectory.

As follows: If the ECU detects that one or more wheels have a slower speed than a certain level compared to the remaining wheels. At this time, through the pump and hydraulic valve, ABS automatically reduces the pressure acting on the disc (this is the release process), helping the wheel not lock. Similarly, if one of the wheels rotates too quickly, the computer automatically applies force again, ensuring braking.

Some notes about the ABS system

When an emergency situation occurs, if the vehicle is equipped with an ABS anti-lock braking system, the driver needs to hold the steering wheel firmly, relax his shoulders and apply the brake firmly, without continuously clicking and releasing because that is his duty. ABS system on the vehicle. The primary benefit of ABS is that it allows the driver to continue to control the steering direction and prevent skidding when braking suddenly.

Changing tire size also affects the operation of the ABS system. The reason is because changing tire size will change wheel speed, leading to incorrect data being sent, making ABS work ineffectively. Therefore, please refer to the instructions carefully before making any changes.

Above is some information that CarOn has compiled about the ABS braking system. If you have any questions about the article as well as repair and maintenance services, you can contact us via hotline 0961247360 or website https://caronpro.vn/ for quick support.

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